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Forex Terminology [H-S]

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pranjali:
H

Hedge - A position or combination of positions that reduces the risk of your primary position.

"Hit the bid" - Acceptance of purchasing at the offer or selling at the bid.

I

Industrial Production – Measures the total value of output produced by manufacturers, mines and utilities. This data tends to react quickly to the expansions and contractions of the business cycle and can act as a leading indicator of employment and personal income.

Inflation - An economic condition whereby prices for consumer goods rise, eroding purchasing power.

Initial Margin - The initial deposit of collateral required to enter into a position as a guarantee on future performance.

Interbank Rates - The Foreign Exchange rates at which large international banks quote other large international banks.

Intervention - Action by a central bank to effect the value of its currency by entering the market. Concerted intervention refers to action by a number of central banks to control exchange rates.

Introducing Broker - A person or corporate entity which introduces accounts to FOREX.com for a fee.

ISM Manufacturing Index – An index that assesses the state of US manufacturing sector by surveying executives on expectations for future production, new orders, inventories, employment and deliveries. Values over 50 generally indicate an expansion, while values below 50 indicate contraction.

ISM Non-Manufacturing – An index that survey service sector firms for their outlook, representing the other 80% of the U.S. economy not covered by ISM MANUFACTURING REPORT. Values over 50 generally indicate an expansion, while values below 50 indicate contraction.

J

Japanese Economy Watchers Survey – Measures the mood of businesses that directly service consumers such waiters, drivers, and beauticians. Readings above 50 generally signal improvements in sentiment.

Japanese Machine Tool Orders – Measures the total value of new orders placed with machine tool manufactures. Machine tool orders are a measure of the demand for machines that make machines, a leading indicator of future industrial production. Strong data generally signals that manufacturing is improving and that the economy is in an expansion phase

K

Kiwi - Slang for the New Zealand dollar.

L

Leading Indicators - Statistics that are considered to predict future economic activity.

Leverage - Also called margin. The ratio of the amount used in a transaction to the required security deposit.

LIBOR - The London Inter-Bank Offered Rate. Banks use LIBOR when borrowing from another bank.

Limit order - An order with restrictions on the maximum price to be paid or the minimum price to be received. As an example, if the current price of USD/YEN is 117.00/05, then a limit order to buy USD would be at a price below 102. (ie 116.50)

Liquidation - The closing of an existing position through the execution of an offsetting transaction.

Liquidity - The ability of a market to accept large transaction with minimal to no impact on price stability.

Long position - A position that appreciates in value if market prices increase. When the base currency in the pair is bought, the position is said to be long.

Lot - A unit to measure the amount of the deal. The value of the deal always corresponds to an integer number of lots.

M

Manufacturing Production – Measures the total output of the manufacturing aspect of the Industrial Production figures. This data only measure the 13 sub sectors that relate directly to manufacturing. Manufacturing makes up approximately 80% of total Industrial Production.

Margin - The required equity that an investor must deposit to collateralize a position.

Margin Call - A request from a broker or dealer for additional funds or other collateral to guarantee performance on a position that has moved against the customer.

Market Maker - A dealer who regularly quotes both bid and ask prices and is ready to make a two-sided market for any financial instrument.

Market Risk - Exposure to changes in market prices.

Mark-to-Market - Process of re-evaluating all open positions with the current market prices. These new values then determine margin requirements.

Maturity - The date for settlement or expiry of a financial instrument.

N

Net Position - The amount of currency bought or sold which have not yet been offset by opposite transactions.

O

Offer (ask) - The rate at which a dealer is willing to sell a currency. See Ask (offer) price

Offsetting transaction - A trade with which serves to cancel or offset some or all of the market risk of an open position.

One Cancels the Other Order (OCO) - A designation for two orders whereby one part of the two orders is executed the other is automatically cancelled.

Open order - An order that will be executed when a market moves to its designated price. Normally associated with Good 'til Cancelled Orders.

Open position - An active trade with corresponding unrealized P&L, which has not been offset by an equal and opposite deal.

Over the Counter (OTC) - Used to describe any transaction that is not conducted over an exchange.

Overnight Position - A trade that remains open until the next business day.

Order - An instruction to execute a trade at a specified rate.

P

Personal Income – Measures an individuals' total annual gross earnings from wages, business enterprises and various investments. Personal income is the key to personal spending, which accounts for 2/3 of GDP in the major economies.

Pips - The smallest unit of price for any foreign currency. Digits added to or subtracted from the fourth decimal place, i.e. 0.0001. Also called Points.

Political Risk - Exposure to changes in governmental policy which will have an adverse effect on an investor's position.

Position - The netted total holdings of a given currency.

Premium - In the currency markets, describes the amount by which the forward or futures price exceed the spot price.

Price Transparency - Describes quotes to which every market participant has equal access.

Profit /Loss or "P/L" or Gain/Loss - The actual "realized" gain or loss resulting fromtrading activities on Closed Positions, plus the theoretical "unrealized" gain or loss on Open Positions that have been Mark-to-Market.

Purchasing Managers Index Services (France, Germany, Eurozone, UK) – Measures an outlook of purchasing managers in the service sector. Such managers are surveyed on a number of subjects including employment, production, new orders, supplier deliveries, and inventories. Readings above 50 generally indicate expansion, while reading below 50 suggest economic contraction.

Q

Quote - An indicative market price, normally used for information purposes only.

R

Rally - A recovery in price after a period of decline.

Range - The difference between the highest and lowest price of a future recorded during a given trading session.

Rate - The price of one currency in terms of another, typically used for dealing purposes.

Resistance - A term used in technical analysis indicating a specific price level at which analysis concludes people will sell.

Retail Sales – Measures the monthly retail sales of all goods and services sold by retailers based on a sampling of variety of different types and sizes. This data gives a look into consumer spending behavior, which is a key determinant of growth in all major economies.

Revaluation - An increase in the exchange rate for a currency as a result of central bank intervention. Opposite of Devaluation.

Risk - Exposure to uncertain change, most often used with a negative connotation of adverse change.

Risk Management - the employment of financial analysis and trading techniques to reduce and/or control exposure to various types of risk.

Roll-Over - A rollover is the simultaneous closing of an open position for today's value date and the opening of the same position for the next day's value date at a price reflecting the interest rate differential between the two currencies.

The spot forex market is traded on a two-day value date. For example, for trades executed on Monday, the value date is Wednesday. However, if a position is opened on Monday and held overnight (remains open after 1700 ET), the value date is now Thursday. The exception is a position opened and held overnight on Wednesday. The normal value date would be Saturday; because banks are closed on Saturday the value date is actually the following Monday. Due to the weekend, positions held overnight on Wednesday incur or earn an extra two days of interest. Trades with a value date that falls on a holiday will also incur or earn additional interest.

Round trip - Buying and selling of a specified amount of currency.

S

Settlement - The process by which a trade is entered into the books and records of the counterparts to a transaction. The settlement of currency trades may or may not involve the actual physical exchange of one currency for another.

Short Position - An investment position that benefits from a decline in market price. When the base currency in the pair is sold, the position is said to be short.

Simple Moving Average (SMA) – A simple average of a pre – defined amount of price bars. For example, a 50 period Daily chart SMA is the average closing price of the previous 50 daily closing bars. Any time interval can be applied here.

Spot Market - A physical market in which foreign currencies and commodities are bought and sold for cash at the current market price, settled “on the spot” and delivered immediately.

Spot Price - The current market price. Settlement of spot transactions usually occurs within two business days.

Spot Trade - The purchase or sale of a foreign currency or commodity for immediate delivery (as opposed to a date in the future). Spot contracts are settled electronically.

Spread - The difference between the bid and offer prices.

Square - Purchase and sales are in balance and thus the dealer has no open position.

Sterling - slang for British Pound.

Stop Loss Order - Order type whereby an open position is automatically liquidated at a specific price. Often used to minimize exposure to losses if the market moves against an investor's position. As an example, if an investor is long USD at 156.27, they might wish to put in a stop loss order for 155.49, which would limit losses should the dollar depreciate, possibly below 155.49. Refer to Trading Handbook for FOREX.com's Stop Loss Policy.

Support Levels - A technique used in technical analysis that indicates a specific price ceiling and floor at which a given exchange rate will automatically correct itself. Opposite of resistance.

Swap - A currency swap is the simultaneous sale and purchase of the same amount of a given currency at a forward exchange rate.

Swissy - Market slang for Swiss Franc.

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